A degree from a vocational school also translated to a high chance of getting a stable job in a factory that provided several benefits and services, such as cash transfers, free food, and free housing. However, unsustainably good working conditions in factories didn’t last long because of efficiency issues within state-owned enterprises; eventually, the wave of privatization in the 1990s ultimately led to the mass closure of state-owned factories and consequently closed many job opportunities for vocational school graduates.Continue Reading

A “small” industrial city in China became known on the internet due to its extremely affordable housing prices. While the development paths of former resource cities remain uncertain, Jessica Yu argues that the experiences of the city of Hegang will likely serve as a defining example of how China’s industrial cities can revive through “alternative” development paths.Continue Reading